Distributing the Processing and Storage Function in Distributed Systems

In distributed system, multiple computers are connected on the network working together as a system. These computer are independent but their collection appears to it users as a single coherent system. Distributed system provides sharing of resources and information. Processes executed on these systems can communicate with one another by exchanging messages over communication channel.

The distributed processing refers to LAN designed so that a single program can run simultaneously at various sites. Most distributed processing systems contain sophisticated software that detects idle CPUs on the network and parcels out programs to utilize them.

Another form of distributed processing involves distributed database, databases in which the data stored across two or more computer systems. The database system keeps track of where the data is so that the distributed nature of the database is not apparent to users.

A distributed database consists of two or more data files located at different sites on a computer network. Because the database is distributed, different users can without interfering with one another. However, the DBMS must periodically synchronize the scattered database to make sure they all have consistent data.

The software system that facilitates the the management of a DDB in such a way that the distribution aspects are transparent to users.

A DDBMS running on a different computer at each site can handle local applications autonomously and participates in at least one global application requiring data from other sites. Communication between different sites via a network is essential for any global application.

The Functions of Such DDBMS are:

To extend communication services to provide access to remote sites and allow the transfer of queries and data across the network.
To extend the DD to store data distribution details.
To provide distributed query processing, including optimization and remote data access.
To extend accuracy control to maintain consistency of replicated data.
To extend recovery services to take account of failures either of sites or of communication links.

Distributed data storage:

There are two approaches for storing data in distributed database.

Replication: The system create different similar copy of any data and each copy is stored on different places. There are two types of replication strategy.
Selective Replication
Complete Replication

Complete Replication: The complete replication strategy consists of maintaining a complete copy of the database at each site. This maximizes accessibility and reliability, but costs of storage and the communications needed for updates may be high.

Understanding Linux Filesystems & Linux Filesystem Types – Linux System Admin Training – Run Ubuntu

The Default Linux File Systems (Filesystems)

The default filesystems that are recognized by Linux are specified in the text file named filesystems in the /proc directory.

Four of the filesystems that are commonly found on a Linux system are: ext2 (old and less common), ext3 (very common), iso9660 and swap.

Some Linux distributions also use other filesystems.

For example, instead of the ext3 filesystem, the SUSE and openSUSE distributions use the reiserfs filesystem by default.

In addition to the above filesystems, by default Linux can also recognize a partition that is a “swap” partition.

Depending on the documentation that you are reading and the command or utility that you are using, “swap” is not typically considered to be a filesystem type. It is a type of partition that is treated by the OS as virtual memory (where hard disk storage space works as though it is RAM memory).

The following is a description of some of the commonly used Linux filesystems.

ext2 (second extended filesystem) supports UNIX/Linux files and directories and allows for long file names (up to 255 characters).

ext3 (third extended filesystem) is the current default filesystem for Red Hat, Fedora and many other Linux distributions. The ext3 filesystem is on the way to becoming the de facto standard for Linux.

ext3 is based on the previous ext2 filesystem. It is basically the same as ext2, with the main difference being that ext3 supports a feature called “journalling”. The greatest benefit of this feature is that it provides a quicker recovery when a filesystem “crash” occurs and a system goes “down” (and stops working).

If files are corrupted on a partition using ext2, then the Linux fsck (filesystem check) utility is run to check the filesystem and repair it and this can take a very long time.

When the files on an ext3 filesystem become corrupted, then the fsck utility is still run to check and repair the filesystem, but this takes much less time due to the journalling feature of ext3.

vfat is the Linux filesystem that is compatible with DOS file names and Windows long file names. In some Linux utilities, “vfat” appears as “fat” or “fat32”.

iso9660 is the filesystem used on a CD-ROM.

swap (a.k.a. Linux swap partition, swap drive, swap space) is a disk partition that is used by the Linux OS as “virtual memory”. Linux uses the disk space that you have specified for the swap drive as though it were RAM (memory chips in your system).

The Linux filesystem type concepts and definitions covered here apply to: Ubuntu, Debian, Red Hat, Fedora, SUSE, Slackware, openSUSE – and ALL other Linux distributions.

Eliminate the Cost, Hassle and Time Associated With Printing and Distributing Enterprise Reports

Like most large businesses, the magazine relies on large reports to distribute information to manage their business. They produce over 1,000 unique financial reports in their central data center for use by their staff around the world. These reports are currently printed on large production printers then physically distributed to their offices around the country.

This process proved to be very inefficient and costly. The cost of producing these reports strains the company’s IT budget, both in terms of paper, direct printer costs (including acquisition and maintenance) printer supplies and in terms of personnel costs associated with the delivering of reports around the company. In addition, the cost of physical distribution (courier) also added to the inefficiencies.

Secondly, the availability of the report information to the end user was too slow for today’s business climate. Business processes were being delayed while the knowledge worker waited for the report they needed to complete their assigned task. The reports were distributed in a very traditional way; they were centrally printed and manually distributed around the company, both locally, regionally, nationally and internationally. This “print and distribute” approach was a hindrance in terms of getting their reports out to knowledge workers in an efficient and timely fashion. The problem was exacerbated during month end closings because trial balances would be run, put in the queue to be printed, delivered to financial management personnel and reviewed.
After the appropriate corrections were made, the reports were re-run, sent through to be printed and delivered to management for review again.

The Challenge (continued)

This process was repeated until no more changes needed to be made and the final version of the report is printed for general distribution to the appropriate personnel. Keeping track of interim report versions, and ensuring proper security of those interim versions proved to be very challenging, and time consuming for management. Reports that were printed and then distributed to outlying offices (both in North America and around the World) could take hours and even days to end up on the knowledge worker’s desk, delaying business processes and reducing productivity around the organization.

The Solution

Plus Technologies worked very closely with the customer to integrate RM Plus, our electronic report management and distribution system and OM Plus our advanced print spooler software into the customer’s report distribution environment. This solution performs multiple functions after report creation through to the availability of a report for a knowledge worker and paid for itself in about 9 months.

A pilot was implemented for testing in a controlled deployment. Twenty reports were chosen along with twenty knowledge workers to be part of the pilot. Upon successful completion of this pilot, the solution was rolled out to over 200 knowledge workers for more than 1000 reports.

RM Plus performs the following functions:

RMPlus provides quick, easy access to computer reports!

The Mainframe creates the report and “prints” it to a virtual destination within OM Plus. This required no changes to the mainframe application.

OM Plus re-labels the report with a descriptive name. This makes the report name more intuitive to the knowledge worker.

OM Plus delivers the report to the RM Plus Document Repository. No operator intervention is required.

Reports are indexed, assigned security, and stored in the file system. At this point, the system notes report versioning. This permits managers to review and re-run (if necessary) financial reports prior to general distribution.

Users can access reports from their desk-tops or from their browser and view just the reports or pages they need to perform their function. All printing is done locally on network lasers when/if needed.

Report Manager Plus-Easy and affordable report distribution and management

RM Plus is an electronic report management and distribution system that connects every report generating application to every end user throughout your organization. It is an easy-to-use, flexible yet cost effective solution that captures reports from any enterprise application and stores them in a centralized repository accessible to your users 24/7!

RM Plus automatically captures report output from multiple enterprise system platforms, organizes and indexes the reports, applies security rules and distributes individual pages or bundles of report pages across your network or the Internet. End users can view, print and download reports – or selected portions of a report – on demand. Data contained in reports is easily found and extracted electronically and can be imported into spreadsheets or databases for further analysis. No more re-keying report data for further analysis!

The Benefits of RM Plus

o Eliminates the cost of printing, report distribution and storing enterprise reports–No more report distribution costs, printer maintenance, toner costs, binders, file cabinets consuming floor space or courier expenses. Don’t let the cost of printing your reports get out of line!

o Instant Access is provided to your report-hungry users. Users have rapid document delivery that is secure and instant access to their reports and documents from anywhere on the web.

o Increases Security and Compliance by controlling access to cabinets, folder, files and pages. Eliminates unauthorized viewing of customer data and provides a detailed, time stamped audit trail of all document delivery and end user activity.

o Improves Customer Service by accessing documents in seconds eliminating the manual retrieval of reports. Automating report delivery to your knowledge workers increases their productivity and the company’s bottom line.

o Streamlines Report Access from Multiple Systems as RM Plus provides a single access point to all report types, no matter where they came from. Whether they are mainframe reports, UNIX applications or Windows Server application reports RM Plus will capture them and make them easily and almost instantly available.

o Data contained in reports is easily found, viewed and securely stored to prevent unauthorized viewing and it is easy for document sharing to take place amongst multiple people.

o Mine and export data in reports to other applications like Excel for further data analysis.

o Creates One Centralized Report Management Repository that is very cost effective. Your users learn one system to access all their archived reports.

o Why RM Plus Report Management?

Here’s why report distribution and management makes sense, especially with the cost effective solution from Plus Technologies:

Eliminates printing distributing and storing of enterprise reports – Significant cost reductions associated with electronic vs physical distribution of reports

No more printer costs, binders, file cabinets consuming floor space, or courier expenses – Improve the bottom line and increase velocity of delivery of business critical report data

Quickly view Reports online, virtually immediately after report is created – Multiple people have access to the same report immediately and simultaneously improving access to business critical data

Data contained in reports is easily found and extracted – Extract data from reports electronically and import into spreadsheets or databases for further analysis. No more re-keying report data

Securely manage who viewed a report and when – No unauthorized viewing of reports for compliance or business reasons

Other Solutions

OM Plus – is advanced, intelligent spooling software designed to seamlessly complement application software programs used by corporations and institutions. Without impacting the application software program, OM Plus will ingest outgoing enterprise print jobs and provide advanced job delivery functions. OM Plus will provide ‘confirmed delivery’ of documents and provide an enterprise level monitor of all print jobs and destinations. In addition, OM Plus provides users and/or administrators a host of tools to automate the printing function. OM Plus users receive benefit from increased help desk productivity, centralized control of print environment, intelligent routing, reduced print related errors, printing assurance, increased security and more.