MCSE Distributed File System

A Distributed File System (DFS) is a file structure that facilitates sharing of data files and resources by means of consistent storage across a network. The earliest file servers were designed in the 1970s. Following its inception in 1985, Sun’s Network File System (NFS) eventually became the foremost commonly used distributed file system. Aside from NFS, significantly distributed file systems are Common Internet File System (CIFS) and Andrew file system (AFS).

The DFS or Microsoft Distributed File System is an arranged client and server solution that enable a large organization to manage numerous allocated shared file within a distributed file system. It delivers site transparency and redundancy to enhance data accessibility in the midst of a breakdown or extreme load by permitting shares in a number of various locations to be logically arranged under a DFS root or a single folder.

It is a client/server-based service that permits individuals to directly access and process files located on the hosting server as if it had been on their personal computer. Every time an individual access a data on the server, the server transmits a copy of the data file, which is cache on the user’s personal computer while the information is being processed which is subsequently returned to the server.

Whenever individuals attempt to gain access to a share found off the DFS root, the individual is actually going through a DFS link allowing the DFS server to automatically re-direct it to the appropriate share and file server.

There can be two methods for utilizing DFS on a Windows Server:

A Standalone or Distinct DFS root provides you with a DFS root found only on the local computer, which therefore does not make use of Active Directory. A Standalone DFS can only be accessed on the local PC where it was made. It does not feature any kind of fault tolerance and could not be connected to any other DFS.

Domain-based DFS roots can be found within Active Directory which enables you to have their information and facts distributed to any number of domain controllers located in the domain; this provides you with fault tolerance to DFS. DFS roots that can be found on a domain needs to be hosted on a domain controller. This is to make sure that links with identical target get hold of all their duplicated data through the network. The file and root data is replicated by means of the Microsoft File Replication Service (FRS).

Advantages of DFS

1. Easy accessibility: individuals do not need to be aware of various locations from where they acquire data. Simply by remembering a single location they will have access to the data.

2. Fail Tolerance: for master DFS hosting server it is possible to obtain a duplicate (Target) on yet another DFS Server. With the help of the master DFS server end users are still able to continue on accessing the data from a back-up DFS (Target). There is absolutely no interruption in being able to access information.

3. Load Balancing: in the event that all of the DFS root servers and targets are operating in good condition, it results in Load balancing. This is often accomplished by indicating locations for different users.

4. Security and safety: By making use of the NTFS configuration, security is put into practice.

Being Hospitable and Using Managed File Transfers to Manage Hotels

One of the biggest areas of concern for hotel chains is how to manage files over a diverse set of locations. Whether these locations are geographically spread across one city or the world is irrelevant, as managed file transfer can take some of the time and work out of both automation and secure sharing with ease and security.

Understanding the diverse needs of a hotelier

Imagine running just one hotel – gaining the best deals for everything from your laundry to your fresh flower service? Imagine managing five, and still trying to keep the deals that you’re negotiating fresh and value filled deals, without needing a centralised team to manage it. MFT can help support it at that scale or larger with ease.

Whether you need to exchange new menus or information between two hotels, or across the whole group, MFT is designed to support the growing needs of a hotelier’s group, without stifling the underlying needs of the individual hotel itself, allowing for dynamic growth within each individual unit.

Five ways hotels can use MFT

There are five key areas that hotels can use MFT to increase productivity and support security and financing with ease.

  • Decentralisation of orders, paperwork and bookings – allowing teams to work via MFT can allow hotels to work with decentralised resources, with all of the benefits of having a dedicated head office.
  • Easier ordering and booking – with a centralisation protocol that distributes to each of the hotels in a chain, it’s easier to share information and work within the needs of running a hotel, whether that’s booking a room or restocking the kitchen.
  • Compliance with financial needs – as financial data is an integral part of the hotelier’s business, being able to protect any data that would be shared is a huge area of need – MFT provides encryption and decryption as standard, based on settings.
  • Integration with systems – MFT automatically integrates with email systems such as Outlook and provides a one click file sharing solution in most cases – this solution uploads the document to the secure area, encrypting or decrypting it, then produces the link in the email without intervention from the sender. This cuts down on file sending mistakes and allows for confidence and ease of transfer.
  • Finally, managed file transfer can help streamline functions and tasks that could be automated, such as file sharing or auditing, ordering or booking. Each of these can cut down on costs and free up staff to focus on the running of the hotel itself, instead of administration.

Understanding how managed file transfer can support your hotel can be as simple as looking at where your file system needs to be upgraded, and how that upgrade can be managed efficiently.

Brief Introduction to the Plan-9 Operating System

Plan 9 is a distributed operating system made by Bell Labs. The OS is free and open source. Plan 9 is similar to Unix in some ways, but Plan 9 is meant to be an improvement to Unix and POSIX.

FUN FACT: The mascot for Plan 9 is a rabbit named “Glenda”.

Plan 9 has some features familiar to Unix users. For instance, Plan 9 uses ProcFS and applies the “everything is a file” concept. However, applications from Unix, Linux, and other systems do not work on Plan 9. Some Linux software works on the Linux emulator (linuxemu). Although, the emulator is not yet complete.

The default shell is “rc”. Many of the usual Unix commands (like ls, cp, rm, etc.) can be used. However, despite the same names, the code used to make these commands are entirely different. Plan 9 does not use any GNU software, neither will any work with help from linuxemu. rc is similar to Bash. However, there are some differences. While Bash’s syntax is ALGOL-like, rc uses C-like syntax.

A GUI is also available to Plan 9 named “rio”. rio is a windowing system. rio does not rely on display servers (such as X11). In fact, rio functions as a display server and window manager. rio supports the alpha bit (transparency).

Plan 9 uses a hybrid kernel which has attributes of both monolithic kernels and microkernels. The kernel supports a variety of platforms such as x86, x86-64, MIPS, SPARC, etc.. Plan 9 has also been ported to ARM platforms such as the Raspberry Pi motherboard.

A hybrid kernel has characteristics of both microkernels and monolithic kernels. Inter-Process Communication (IPC), thread management, filesystems, and drivers reside in the kernel space.

Plan 9 is best known for its 9P network protocol. 9P (also called Styx or “Plan 9 Filesystem Protocol”) also serves as a communications protocol between the internal components of the system. The fourth edition of Plan 9 introduced a modified 9P protocol called 9P2000.

FUN FACT: The Styx protocol used in the Inferno operating system is a variant of 9P.

To avoid confusion, it may help to know a little about the Inferno operating system, which is sometimes mistaken as some form of Plan 9. Inferno is a distributed operating system originally made by Bell Labs (like Plan 9), but is now maintained by Vita Nuova. Inferno is neither Unix or POSIX and its primary use is to be a programming environment for the Limbo programming language. Inferno is not a typical operating system. Rather, its kernel is a virtual machine called “dis” that runs on a pre-existing OS (such as Linux, Windows, Plan 9, FreeBSD, etc.).