3 Methods of Linux System Administration and Why Linux Commands Are Best – Linux Training Online

When you are a new user needing to get Linux training, it is often confusing to decide what to focus on.

Should you learn how to use Linux for just one distribution (a.k.a. version, distro)?

Should you focus on learning GUI utilities – or should you learn Linux commands for doing system administration?

Linux Commands Training Tips: The Linux System Administration concepts and commands covered here apply to ALL Linux distros, including: Red Hat, Ubuntu, Kubuntu, Edubuntu, Slackware, Debian, Fedora, SUSE and openSUSE.

3 Methods of Linux System Administration and Why Using Linux Commands is the Best Method

1. Using Linux GUI utilities for System Administration

Many Linux distributions have “point-and-click” GUI (graphical user interface) utilities that allow you to do common and popular tasks, like manage the file system, create Linux users, and manage user and group permissions.

However, these GUI utilities are usually specific to a single Linux distribution.

So, learning how to use a Linux GUI in one distro is basically useless if you have to use a different one later, or if you’re working in an environment with multiple Linux distributions.

Linux Training Tips: To run a GUI utility, you need to have a desktop installed and sometimes one isn’t installed on a Linux server because it isn’t needed. In addition to this, the Linux system administration pros only use commands because GUI utilities are too slow to run and time-consuming to use.

2. Doing Linux System Administration Tasks with Commands that are Specific to a Distribution

The major (popular) Linux distributions all have several commands that are specific to that single distribution. In other words, for each popular distro, there are several commands that are specific that just that version.

For example, a Linux distribution will likely have a command that is used to manage partitions (disk space) and this command is specific to that distribution.

Learning how to use commands that are only available on a single distribution is a huge waste of time – if there is an equivalent GNU / Linux command – and there almost always is.

For example, the Linux fdisk command is a GNU command that is used to manage the partitions on a system and this command exists on all distributions.

So, rather than learn a command that is specific to a single Linux distribution, learn the GNU commands because these commands are common to all distributions.

3. Using Linux Commands that are Common to All Distributions – The GNU Commands

The GNU commands are the most popular Linux commands – and they are common to all distributions.

Linux Training Tips: Linux distributions are rising and falling in popularity all the time.

If you just learn how to use Linux by running the GUI utilities in one distro, and then you stop using that distro, then you have to learn all the GUI utilities of the next distro. If you learn how to use commands, then you learn how to use Linux for all distros!

How can you tell which commands are the GNU / Linux commands?

Get an excellent set of videos that shows you the popular GNU commands and then try these Linux commands yourself. Then you can learn Linux the easy way – by watching it and then working with it!

Distributing the Processing and Storage Function in Distributed Systems

In distributed system, multiple computers are connected on the network working together as a system. These computer are independent but their collection appears to it users as a single coherent system. Distributed system provides sharing of resources and information. Processes executed on these systems can communicate with one another by exchanging messages over communication channel.

The distributed processing refers to LAN designed so that a single program can run simultaneously at various sites. Most distributed processing systems contain sophisticated software that detects idle CPUs on the network and parcels out programs to utilize them.

Another form of distributed processing involves distributed database, databases in which the data stored across two or more computer systems. The database system keeps track of where the data is so that the distributed nature of the database is not apparent to users.

A distributed database consists of two or more data files located at different sites on a computer network. Because the database is distributed, different users can without interfering with one another. However, the DBMS must periodically synchronize the scattered database to make sure they all have consistent data.

The software system that facilitates the the management of a DDB in such a way that the distribution aspects are transparent to users.

A DDBMS running on a different computer at each site can handle local applications autonomously and participates in at least one global application requiring data from other sites. Communication between different sites via a network is essential for any global application.

The Functions of Such DDBMS are:

To extend communication services to provide access to remote sites and allow the transfer of queries and data across the network.
To extend the DD to store data distribution details.
To provide distributed query processing, including optimization and remote data access.
To extend accuracy control to maintain consistency of replicated data.
To extend recovery services to take account of failures either of sites or of communication links.

Distributed data storage:

There are two approaches for storing data in distributed database.

Replication: The system create different similar copy of any data and each copy is stored on different places. There are two types of replication strategy.
Selective Replication
Complete Replication

Complete Replication: The complete replication strategy consists of maintaining a complete copy of the database at each site. This maximizes accessibility and reliability, but costs of storage and the communications needed for updates may be high.

Network Monitoring For Satellite Teleconference, Distance Learning, and Media Distribution

Today’s Satellite Systems

Many satellite system projects these days involve satellite uplinks with hundreds or perhaps thousands of receivers in the network receiving content from them. Traditionally, if these networks are monitored, the planners rely on SNMP traps for big troubles and plan for round-robin polling and pinging to determine the health of the receivers and other devices.

Traditional monitoring systems, because of polling speed, within an hour or two NOC (network operations center) personnel can know system status for all devices.  For example:

  • is device alive
  • can I ping it
  • is the receiver on the right channel
  • signal level
  • locked for the transmission
  • error rates

As to the traps, a little secret: many of the devices do not support traps and if they do traps can be lost because they are sent as UDP traffic with no assured delivery. Requirements for today’s professional satellite systems have evolved to the point where NOC personnel need more information and they need it more quickly. Representative are teleconference, distance learning, and media distribution systems.

For these new systems the requirements for monitoring have moved out of a strictly maintenance need to both a maintenance and operational requirement.

Teleconference and distance learning have an almost interactive need for status and data:

1. Is the receiver is on the right channel?

2. Is the feed good? Are error rates low and the signal level high?

3. If the signal is low in Milwaukee, what’s the weather like?

4. Are all of the correct materials downloaded to the receiver?

5. Are keypads and other data entry devices ready?

Media distribution systems for broadcast and digital cinema have many of the same needs and some others:

1. Is there sufficient space on the device to receive the huge files used in these operations?

2. What is the progress of the transfer (it takes a long time to transfer multi-gigabyte files)?

3. Did the digital rights management (DRM) keys arrive?

4. If it is a playout device, did the correct play list arrive?

5. Can we get the playback logs as events play?

6. What about maintenance logs, do we have to SSH into each device and retrieve them manually, or will the system automatically gather and check them for us?

These lists are representative of information the NOC needs to ensure proper operation of the network. First and second generation monitoring systems don’t even begin to broach gathering and reporting the new types of information needed to reliably operate these systems.

Third Generation Network Monitoring

Satellite network monitoring systems must have parallel collection processes in order to have sufficiently fresh data to be of value to the NOC. For many types of operations media content must be tracked. You could argue that media is not part of network monitoring and yet today’s NOC needs this information to ensure proper operation. A new generation of devices are out there delivering media content. Real time, or near real time reporting is needed to insure proper operation of these systems. New ways to visualize the network to go along with these new data sets is also required.

It’s a new game in the network monitoring world: network monitoring software has to move to the next level, including being media-aware, to meet the needs of today’s NOC for information.